C 11: Phycology
Evolution and Biodiversity of algae: Evolution of algae
at Morphological and Ultrastructural level. Algal diversity of
Different Habitat and their Conservation.
Relationship of Pro- and Eukaryotic Algae: What is the place
of Algae in the system,Phylogenetic theories in systematics; Phylogenetic
methods- Molecular markers, Symbiosis theory- Primary, Secondary
and Tertiary endosymbiosis ,Fan shaped phylogenetic tree, Concept
of Picobiliphytes, Chlorarachinophyta, Apicomplexan and Streptophyta
gene Transfer and Evolution of Eukaryotic algal Chloroplast:
The prokaryotic Ancestry of Plastids and their subsequent evolution,
Origin of peridinin and fucoxanthin containing plastids through
tertiary endosymbiosis. Molecular phylogeny of algal chloroplasts
and higher plant chloroplast .
Genome and genetic Properties, Soil and rice field reclamation;
Heterocyst- ultra structure, biochemistry and nif-gene regulation;
Cyanobacterial bloom – ecological significance and its control.
overview of Algal Divisions: Glaucophyta- Principle Chacteristics
and primitive features, Dinophyta : General Features, Redtides
and Toxins ,Bioluminiscence, Heterotrophism.
and Ultrastructure of Algal Cell: Cell surface with extracellular
Mucilage, Flagellar Motor, Photoreceptor Apparatus and Nuclear
Ecology – Types of phytoplanktons; Primary Production; Species
Diversity Index; Physical Environment (Light, Heat, Turbulance);
Chemical environment (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicon, Carbon);Nutrient
Uptake Models (Michaelis- Menten and Monod , Droope Model)
Diversity Study : Identification of members of Different
Groups(maximum 5 genera from each group) - Cyanobacteria , Bacillariophyta,Euglenophyta
Identification: Enteromprpha, Ulva, Halimeda, Bryopsis,
Caulerpa,Macrocystis Sargassam, Padina, Dictyota, Catenella,Kappaphycus,
sampling and Identification:
of Phosphate, nitrate, DO and BOD from water samples.
principles of Culturing Algae in Laboratory and growth measurement.
6. Algal chromosome
study from Chara .
C 12: Microbiology
microorganisms: Methods for isolating pure cultures, types of
culture media, enrichment culture techniques, maintenance and
preservation of pure cultures. Control of microorganisms: physical
and chemical methods.
Diversity and Extremophilies
bacteria; Chemolithotrophic bacteria; Spirochetes; Rickettsias;
Chlamydias; Mycoplasmas; Myxobacteria and Extremophiles (thermophilic,
halophilic, acidophilic and alkalophilic bacteria). Unculturable
growth: definition, growth parameters, measurement of growth,
synchronous growth, growth kinetics, factors affecting growth.
Batch and continuous culture. Differentiation: endospore formation-cytological,
physiological and genetic aspects, germination; life cycle of
of biosynthesis of peptidoglycan, major amino acids and proteins.
Regulatory mechanisms in bacteria - induction, repression, feed
back inhibition, catabolite repression and attenuation; Manipulation
of biochemical regulatory mechanisms for overproduction of metabolites.
Nitrogen metabolism: ammonification, nitrification, denitrification
and nitrogen fixation.
and replication of genetic material in bacteria: chromosome and
plasmid, Gene transfer mechanisms: conjugation, transformation
and transduction. Recombination in bacteria
properties of bacteria: toxins and extracellular enzymes; brief
account of major human disease and their bacterial pathogens.
Principles of chemotherapy, general account of chemotheraputic
agents, sulfa drugs and antibiotics.
immunology, innate and acquired immunity, humoral and cell mediated
immunity, organ and cells involved in immunity, T cell and B cells;
antigens: characteristics and types, adjuvants. Immunoglobulis:
types, structure and properties.
and acellular microbes
and classification, distinctive properties of virus, morphology
and ultrastrucutre, capsid and their arrangements, types of envelops
and their composition, viral genome, their types and structure,
virus related agents (viriods and prions). Viral replication:
lytic and lysogenic.
of culture media (synthetic, semisynthetic and complex); methods
of sterilization and aseptic methods.
of microorganisms from natural samples by dilution plating method
and development of pure cultures by streak-plate and pour-plate
of morphological (simple and differential staining), physiological
and biochemical characteristics of some selected isolated bacteria.
estimation of bacterial growth, construction of bacterial growth
curve; influence of physical and chemical factors on bacterial
and isolation of free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria from soil
and isolation of Rhizobium from root nodule.
of antibiotic sensitivity of some bacteria by disc diffusion method.
in bacteria using auxotrophic mutants/ antibiotic-, metal resistant
of bacteriophage and determination of phage-titer.
Visit to some
industries of microbiological interest.
C 13: Plant Anatomy and Developmental Biology
Aspects: Novel features of plant growth and development; concepts
of plasticity in plant development; analyzing plant growth.
and dormancy- Embryo and endosperm development; cell lineages
during late embryo development; Seed maturation and dormancy.
Leaf and Root development- Organization of Shoot Apical Meristem
(SAM); Control of cell division and cell-to-cell communication;
Molecular analysis of SAM; Leaf development and differentiation;
Organization of Root Apical Meristem (RAM); cytohistological logical
zonation of SAM; Root hair and trichome development; cell fate
induction and development- Hormonal control; Inflorescence
and floral determination; sex determination, development of pollen
and Seedling growth- Mobilization of food reserves during
seed germination; tropisms; hormonal control of seed germination
and seedling growth.
of primary and secondary plant bodies- Ontogeny, differentiation
of sclerides, fibres and their control of differentiation; vascular
cambium; factors influencing cambial activity.
plant anatomy- Anatomical response to mineral deficiency;
response of plants to wounding and invasion by microorganisms.
in systematics and evolution: Xylem evolution; wood anatomy,
nodal anatomy, floral vasculature, mineral inclusion in systematics
anatomy: Leaf and wood anatomy in ecological perspective;
anatomical response to pollutants.
plant anatomy: Application of anatomical studies in climatology,
genetics and plant breeding, biomedical research and forensic
1. Cell types-
trichomes, sclerides, tracheids, vessel members and sieve tube
structures and cell inclusions- necteries, glandular hairs, oil
glands, salt glands, resin canals, laticifers, cystolith and crystals.
3. ; Nodal
anatomy- unilacunar , trilacunar, multilacunar.
phloem from TS, TLS, RLS of the bark and anatomy of lenticels.
5. Wood anatomy
from TS, TLS, RLS of woods.
6. Study of
shoot apical organization in pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
of sun and shade leaves, xeromorphic leaves, succulent leaves,
halophyte leaves, hydromorphic leaves.
Study of different
types of embryo.
C 14: Cell Biology and BioMolecules
Carbohydrates- mono, di- and polysaccharides; amino acids and
peptides; lipids-classification, structure and function, their
roles in biological membranes. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and
Quaternary structure of proteins; α-helix, β-sheet and
collagen structure; Nucleic acid classification, physical and
Ultra-structural organization of cell; origin and evolution.
Structural models; Composition and dynamics; Biogenesis and assembly,
Dynamic aspects of cell wall during growth and differentiation;
Transport of ions and macromolecules; Pumps, carriers and channels;
Endo- and exocytosis.
Interaction and signaling: Cellular adhesions; adhesion receptors;
intercellular junctions in plants and animals; Intracellular signal
transduction, signaling molecules and cell surface receptors.
Mitochondrial DNA and male sterility; Biogenesis of mitochondria;
Origin and evolution.
Chloroplast DNA and its significance; Chloroplast biogenesis;
Origin and evolution.
Macromolecular trafficking; Chromatin organization and packaging;
Higher order structure of chromatin, chromosomes; specialised
chromosomes, nucleosome positioning.
and Protein Synthesis: Organization and biogenesis of ribosomes;
Ribosome structure and its significance in protein synthesis;
translation prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
System: Structure and function of microbodies, Golgi apparatus,
lysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum; Membrane maturation and specialization.
Nature of cytoskeleton, intermediate filaments, microtubules,
cilia and centrioles, actin filaments, actin binding proteins.
Introduction, phases, cell cycle control in yeast.
acid: Structure and properties of DNA, aberrant structures;
Melting and reassociation of DNA, Cot curves, repetitive and unique
sequences, Rot curves and gene expression.
Mode of replication of circular and linear DNA molecules, machinery
of DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; replication
acid: Structure and properties of RNA, Types of RNA, RNA processing
– Processing of tRNA, rRNA; mRNA processing- G capping, intron
splicing, polyadenylation. mRNA localization.
in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Promoters, enhancers, transcription
factors; initiation, elongation and termination of transcription
in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
DNA polymerases: Types, structure and function; polymerase
chain reaction: theory, applications and modifications.
Bot C 14:
Cell Biology and BioMolecules
fractionation of plant tissues and isolation of cellular organelles.
of plant genomic DNA and estimation of purity by spectrophotometry
and agarose gel electrophoresis. Protein Gel Electrophoresis:
Native and SDS-PAGE
C 15: Bryophytes, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms
1. Broad outline
of classification and evolutionary trends among Bryophytes.
ecology: substrate colonized by bryophytes, growth forms and ecotypes.
as site indicators-responses of bryophyte to environmental pollution,
initial colonization and succession.
chemistry and taxonomic implications.
Outline of systematic treatment of Pteridophytes; distribution
of extant groups in time and space.
2. Early land
plants; vegetative and reproductive organography, evolutionary
significance of the members of Zosterophyllopsida, Trimerophytopsida,
Isoetales and Sphenophyllales.
types and their development; evolution of stele; ecology, karyology
and affinity of Ophioglossaceae, Osmundaceae, Cyatheaceae, Polypodiaceae,
4. Types of
spore, induction of spore germination, gametophyte types, biochemical
aspects of gametophyte differentiation; antheridogens- chemical
nature and mode of action; determination of femaleness in free
sporing heterosporous plants; phytochemistry of pteridophytes.
of ferns in an ecological perspective; insect, microorganism –pteridophyte
interactions, endangered and endemic pteridophytes and their conservation.
and reproductive biology of ferns: polyploidy, apospory, apogamy,
apomixis and hybridization; genetic variability in fern population-
of progymnosperms and its evolutionary significance
Outline of systematic treatment; distribution of extant taxa in
time and space.
3. Brief account
of extinct Cycadales and Coniferales with emphasis on evolutionary
morphology and reproductive biology (Pollination mechanism, embryogeny)
of extant Cycadales, Coniferales, Ginkgoales, Taxales and Gnetales.
and phytochemistry of important taxa, biotechnology of important
taxa; endangered and endemic taxa and their conservation.
1. Study of
general habitat, external and internal morphology of vegetative
and reproductive structures (spore types, soral anatomy etc.)
of the following taxa: Psilotum, Lycopodium japonicum, L. serratum,
L. cernuum, Selaginella monospora, Isoetes coromandelina, Equisetum
diffusum, Botrychium, Angiopteris, Osmunda, Lygodium, Dicraopteris,
Oleandra, Nephrolepis, Aplenium, Blechnum, Adiantum, Christella,
Cyathea/ Alsophila/ Hemitelia, Microsorum, Phymatosorus, Ceratopteris
morphological features of the following taxa: Tmesipteris,
L. squarrosum, L. selago, Ophioglossum, Schizaea, Marattia, Cibotium,
Drynaria, Acrostichum, Selaginella bryopteris, Pteris vittata,
Pyrrosia, Helminthostachys, Cheilanthes and Onychium.
of general habit, external and internal morphology with special
reference to their male and female reproductive structures, pollen
grains: Cycas, Ginkgo, Pinus, Cryptomeria, Thuja, Araucaria,
Podocarpus, Cephalotaxus, Taxus, Ephedra, Gnetum.
2. Study of
leaf and wood anatomy of the following taxa: Abies, Cryptomeria,
Cupressus, Araucaria, Taxus and Gnetum.
3. Study of
external morphology of the following taxa: Zamia, Encephalartos,
Tsuga, Taxodium, Cunninghamia, Juniperus, Callitris, Agathis,
Welwitschia, Sequoia and Metasequoia.
C 21: Mycology and Plant Pathology
systematics, origin and phylogenetic relationship in fungi.
germination and growth.
mechanism of asexual and sexual reproduction.
cycle in Yeast.
of fermentation technology: Industrial production of citric
acid, alcohol and antibiotics.
diseases in animal and man and disease management.
utilization of mycorrhiza in agriculture.
approaches in mushroom production.
of plant disease.
of penetration and the process of disease development.
of disease resistance.
of host pathogen interaction.
overview of plant diseases caused by different biotic and abiotic
of disease control by chemical and biological means.
approaches for diseases resistance.
disease diagnosis utilizing molecular tools.
and incubation- principles and uses of instruments.
media and their preparation.
of stabs, slants and pouring of plates.
of fungi from water, soil and air by culture plate technique.
of pathogen from diseased tissues (leaf, stem and fruit).
of pure culture and sub culturing.
of monosporous-, polysporous- and tissue- culture.
of tuber, stem and fruit.
9. Study of
hyphal types and hyphal system.
of production of organic acid / alcohol / enzyme.
of fungal nuclei.
control by dual culture technique.
and reproductive structure of some macro and micro fungi.
and histopathology of some common diseases with diagnostic characteristics.
C 22: Taxonomy of Angiosperms
Definitions of terms: Systematics, taxonomy, classification,
identification, nomenclature, aims and scope of taxonomy, history
and phases of taxonomy.
sources of Taxonomy: Concepts of character, relevance of embryology,
palynology, phytochemistry, ultra structure and molecular taxonomy.
of Taxonomy: Functions of field, herbarium, botanic gardens,
floras/literature, GIS (geographic information system).
Definition, methods, categories, relationship with classical taxonomy.
of Taxonomical Hierarchy: Species/genus/family and other categories,
History of ICBN, aims and principles, rules (incl fossils and
cultivated plants) and recommendations, proposed bio and phylocodes.
and Principles of Assessing Relationship: Phenetic numerical
taxonomy- principles, philosophies, methods, merits and demerits.
systems of angiosperm classification: Outlines, philosophies
and principles, relative merits and demerits, recent trends in
classification- molecular and cladistics ones.
diversity: Salient features, evolutionary trends and phylogeny
in magnollidae, Hamamelidae, Caryophyllidae, Asteridae, Alismatidae
and Liliidae (Sensu Cronquist ,1981), concepts of palaeoherbs,
Concepts, levels, hotspots, megadiversity centers, status (with
special reference to India); Concerns- extinction and threats
(IUCN categories), conservation-needs and methods.
of plant specimens and description of vegetative and reproductive
characters from representative locally available families.
in using local floras and other literature and herbaria for identification
of specimens described in the classes.
3. Study of
various taxa of a genus, location of key characters and preparation
of keys at specific level.
4. Field excursion
for familiarization with and study of vegetation types(s) and
flora(s) of areas outside the state and training in collection
and preservation methodologies.
C 23: Palaeobotany and Palynology
geological information related to palaeobotany:
rocks; Taphonomy; dating the pages of earth history; nomenclature
and reconstruction of fossil plants; Stratigraphy; Basic concepts
of continental drift and plate tectonics.
and evolution of plant life forms:
environments; Brief idea of Origin of life; first prokaryotes;
evolution of eukaryotes; geological records of algae (stromatolites,
diatoms, dinoflagellates), fungi (endomycorrhiza and epiphyllous
fungi), bryophytes and their ecological significance.
The colonization of land:
changes before terrestrialization, land adaptive features, evolution
of land plants- different evidences, biogeographical distribution
of early land plants (Silurian- early Carboniferous), earliest
trees in the fossil record.
of seed plants:
hydrasperman reproduction; evolution of closed carpel; evidences
from the ovulate fructifications of Glossopteridales, Corystospermales,
Caytoniales, Bennettitales, Pentoxylales.
the first angiosperms: leaves, flowers and pollen grains; place
of origin and radiation; cladistic and molecular biological approaches
on phylogeny of angiosperms.
plant life as source of energy:
of commercial value- coal, petroleum- their origin and depositional
environment; coal and petroliferous basins of India.
palynology; Spore, pre-pollen and pollen morphology, wall chemistry,
evolution of aperture types;
palaeobotany and palynology:
of palaeofloristics, palaeogeography, palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology;
Application of neopalynology and palaeopalynology.
DNA and other fossil biomolecules and their potential in evolutionary
research; stable isotopes and tree ring in reconstruction of palaeoclimate.
1. Types of
fossils, and modes of preservation.
of study of plant fossils:
method (demonstration and study of prepared slides), peel techniques
(demonstration and study of prepared peel sections); maceration
of peat, lignite, coal: (demonstration).
study of fossil plants through ages- Stromatolites, Precambrian
biota, Cooksonia, Rhynia, Zosterophyllum, Lepidodendron,
Sigillaria, Lepidophlois, Sphenophyllum, Calamites, Sharmastachys,
members of Filicopsida- Coenopteridales members of Lyginopteridales,
Medullosales, Glossopteridales: upright Glossopteris plant,
Vertebraria root, Peltaspermales, Caytoniales, Bennettitales,
Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Pentoxylales, Cordaitales, Coniferales,
angiosperm fossils (to be studied in stratigraphic sequence).
method (demonstration); study of morphology of modern spores and
pollen grains; pollen analysis of honey.
5. Study of
macerated sample (to be supplied) of peat, lignite and coal. Quantitative
and qualitative study of palynomorphs. Interpretation of data
on stratigraphic age and environment of deposition.
C 24: Genetics and Genomics
and importance of Plant Genetics: Basic discoveries in classical
and molecular genetics; Extension of Mendelism:Allelism; gene
function to produce polypeptides; interaction with environment;
penetrance and expressibility; gene interaction-epistasis, pleiotropy,
continuous variations Model organisms for genetic studies :
Life cycle of Neurospora, Arabidopsis and Corn.
crossing over and chromosome mapping-:Crossing over as the
chromosome mapping; three point test cross.Construction of genetic
and physical map;molecular polymorphism..
Genetics -- Principles, basic procedures and terminology of
microbial genetics; Gene mapping in bacteria and viruses; Genetic
analysis in fungi, tetrad analysis to detect linkage in fungi
organization in Eukaryotes – types of genomes, genetic features
of eukaryotic nuclear genomes; development of gene concept, gene
replication, organization of structural and functional elements
of chromosome:-centromere, telomere heterochromatin and telomerase,
sex chromosomes in plants; special chromosomes in different eukaryotes
;genome duplication and alterations and their role in evolution;
Genes and gene number; Law of constancy and C-value paradox.
-- Control of gene expression; Control of gene expression in bacteriophage
lambda, T-phages; RNA phages; Regulation of prokaryotic gene expression
(lac, his, trp operons and catabolite repression); Regulation
of gene expression in eukaryotes, heterochromatin in gene silencing.
Integrity and Diversity – Physical and chemical basis of equational
separation of chromosomes; Recombination, Mechanism of recombination;
Evolutionary significance of recombination; genetic control of
recombination. Mutagenesis: Molecular basis of spontaneous and
induced mutations; Transposon mutagenesis, In vitro mutagenesis,
Site-directed mutagenesis, Environmental mutagenesis; Repair
and retrieval systems; Mobile genetic elements: Structure and
function of transposable elements and their role in evolution.
Assisted Breeding: Quantitative and qualitative traits, marker
assisted selection for genes of agronomic importance; QTL mapping
Genetics-- Definition of populations, Gene frequency in a
population, genetic equilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg principle, barriers
to gene flow and mechanism of speciation, Using highly polymorphic
DNA sequences in DNA typing, Inbreeding and genetic consequences
of self-pollination in plants.
and Comparative Genomics – Concept; Genome sequencing; High
throughput genome sequencing; Arabidopsis, rice and human
genomes; Genome annotation; Synteny; Gene search and comparison
Genomics -- Approaches to analyze differential expression
of genes - ESTs, SAGE, microarrays and their applications; Principles
in reverse genetics: Gene tagging; Gene trapping; Gene silencing;
Knockout mutants; Transcriptome; Ribotype concept.
to proteomics—The concept of proteome, definitions and conceptualization;
Applications of proteomics: protein mining, protein-expression
profiling, protein network mapping, protein modification and analysis.
meiotic chromosome analysis and phases of division
polyploids and structural hybrids
biomarkers of mutagenesis
genetic polymorphisms using isozymes and molecular markers
site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate gene silencing and knockout
S 21: Instrumentation (Supportive Course)
and application of colorimetry in biological systems:
Basic principle, double beam UV/VIS and IR spectrometers, atomic
absorption spectrometer, principle and instrumentation of fluorescence
spectrophotometer, applications, MALDI-TOF, LC-MS-MS.
Electrophoresis, Centrifugation: Basic principles, types and application.
microscopes, optical microscopy; phase, ultraviolet and interference
microscope- their basic principles; optical systems and ray diagrams-
their applications in cell biology; fluorescence microscope; micro
spectrophotometry of cells and tissues,
microscopy: theory of magnetic and electrostatic lenses and their
focal length; construction of electron microscope; limiting resolution
and useful magnification; contrast formation; shadowing and staining
technique; scanning and transmission electron microscopy; specimen
preparation techniques; application of electron microscopy in
cell and molecular biology.
activated cell sorter (FACS), Micro array, NMR, FRET.
C 31: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry
atom and chemical bonds, reaction orders, pH , buffer, indicator
, physico chemical properties of water.
Plant water relationship.
Ion uptake mechanism of individual cells and roots, interaction
between ions, ion competition, antagonism and synergism.
Phloem translocation: symplastic and apoplastic flow of
solvents, phloem loading and unloading.
Reactive oxygen species- formation and role in plants.
photosynthesis : complexes of electron transport in chloroplast
, mechanism of electron transport generation of proton gradient
and ATP generation, bioenergetics of light reaction, CO2
concentrating mechanism in plants, regulation of C3-
C4 and CAM cycles
Respiration, metabolic regulation of glycolysis, acetyl
CoA , kreb’s cycle, gluconeogenesis and glyoxylate cycle.
Nitrogen metabolism: structure and function of nitrogenase,
nif gene and nod gene organization.
Plasticidal pigments- chlorophyll structure and biosynthesis,
hormonal regulation of growth and development.
Structure, biosynthesis, role and mechanism of action of
auxin, gibberellins, cytokines, ethylene and abscisic acid.
Phytochrome; chemistry and photo-morphogenetic responses.
Chryptochrome and blue light responses.
and generation of seeds: orthodox and recalcitrant seeds,
types of seed dormancy, breaking of dormancy, biochemical changes
during dormancy, hormonal regulation of dormancy and germination.
: an overview.
conservation: ATP cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation.
metabolism: oxidation of fatty acids and biosynthesis of fatty
primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins,
biosynthesis purification and characterization, Ramachandran plot.
of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, enzyme inhibition.
Senescence- hormonal and environmental control of senescence,
programme cell death in life cycle of plants.
Metabolomics: networking and application.
of enzymes: Catalase, Peroxidase, Amylase, Phosphatase, Protease,
Ascorbic acid Oxidase and Urease.
method of analysis of calcium and magnesium
estimation : IAA , reducing sugar, sugar test by copper reduction
method, amino acids, DNA , RNA Protein
of chloroplast and determination of Hill activity.
of instruments: Different Centrifuges, including Ultracentrifuge
spectrophotometry, and spectroflurometry, Chromatography, colorimetry.
test of seed viability.
purification by salting and isoelectric precipitation
test of organic acids, sucrose, glucose, maltose, and arabinose
C 32: Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy
and pharmacological action of plant drugs.
of secondary metabolites – a brief account of acetate malonate,
acetate mevalonate and shikimic acid pathway.
– starch, cellulose derivatives, gums.
general account, biosynthesis, glycosidal drugs
glycosides and glucosinolate compounds.
definition, properties, classification, alkaloidal drugs – Datura
stramonium, Atropa belladona, opium, Cinchona,
tea, ergot, Rauvolfia, Holarrhena, Catharanthus – alkaloidal
constituents, uses, allied drugs.
compounds produced by plants, types, biological activity, drugs
– Senna, Aloe, Hypericum, Capsicum.
compounds, different types, biological activity and pharmaceutical
oils, composition, drugs – clove, Mentha, Eucalyptus, Foeniculum,
different types, uses
allergenic and other toxic plants
(plant and microbial origin)
of extraction, isolation and characterisation of secondary metabolites.
of important secondary metabolites by tissue cell and organ
control of plant drugs.
solvent for extraction of alkaloids, phenols.
tests for the detection of alkaloids, phenols, anthraquinones,
anthocyanins, betacyanins, carotenoids.
and chromatographic detection of some common plant drugs.
of unorganized drugs – starches, gums, resins etc.
of studying stomatal index, vein islet number, palisade ratio.
and microscopic evaluation of selected powdered and whole plant
C 33: Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
improvement of crops (Molecular breeding, Mutagenesis, Transgenesis,
Metabolomics and Hybrid technology)
Biology: Structure to Function in plants
genes, promoters, intron splicing, vectors, codon optimization,
gene mapping and cloning of plant genes
DNA technology: Principles and methods of recombinant DNA
technology- expression of cloned genes in E. coli, cloning
in yeast: transformation in yeast, yeast artificial chromosome
(YAC), retrovirus like vector (Ty) in yeast/shuttle vector.
tissue culture: Organogenesis, Embryogenesis, in vitro
fertilization, Apomixix and application of haploidy and DH populations
in transgenic breeding and crop improvement; Molecular and Biochemical
markers of in vitro regenerability of plants
transformation: Vector construction, Protoplast system (electroporation
and PEG), Agrobacterium system, en-planta transformation
and Biolistic system; Screenable and selectable markers and their
use; Chloroplast transformation; Marker-free methodologies; Gene
stability, Inheritance and Differential expression of transgenes
characterization, management and regulatory system of transgenic
management: Implications of herbicide resistant crops
management in crop plants, Biopesticides, Built-in plant protection
(Bt technology) safety and environmental issues
breeding for abiotic stress tolerance (stress regulated genes
expression, osmotic stress signalling, application in salt, cold
and drought tolerance in plants)
breeding for Biotic stress tolerance: Fungal resistance,
Bacterial resistance, Virus resistance, Transgenes pyramiding
and Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
crops (improvement of micronutrients in food crops; e.g. Iron
and pro-vitaminA enriched rice, Vitamin E-maize, Protein improvement
in rice and potato etc.)
Food-safety, Intellectual Property Rights and Ethical Issues –
Intellectual property rights (IPR); Patents, trade secrets,
copyright, trademarks; Plant genetic resources; Plant varietals
protection and registration; GATT & TRIPPS; Patenting of biological
material; Bio-safety and containment practices and Food-safety
of GMO crops
as Biofactories – Concept of bio-pharming; Renewable Bio-fuel
production in plants
and social impact of Biotech-crops (ex-ante analysis
and commercial release of GM-crops)
1. Plant tissue
culture techniques (media preparation, culture of explants (embryo,
shoot tips, nodal segment)
culture of dicot and monocot plants
3. Plant Transformation
Biology tools: PCR, Gel electrophoresis, Isolation of plasmid
and genomic DNAs (demonstration)
C 34: Microbial Biotechnology
to microbial biotechnology, interaction between microbiology,
chemical engineering and biochemistry.
to bioprocessing, classification of fermentation, isolation of
industrially important microbial cultures, screening and strain
improvement, media formulation, and process optimization.
and operation of fermenters, basic concepts for selection of a
reactor. Growth and non growth synthesis. Open and closed system
removal of microbial cells and solid matter, foam separation,
precipitation, filtration, centrifugation, cell disruptions, liquid-liquid
extraction, chromatography, membrane processes. Drying and crystallization.
production of enzymes, polysaccharides, polyesters, ethanol, single
cell protein, recombinant proteins, antibiotics and vaccines.
Biotechnology: Gene manipulation of fungi for industrial and
agricultural applications, protoplast technology in fungi, enzyme
based techniques for identification of microbes, cloning of gene
for direct chemical analysis, proteomics of host pathogen interaction,
genetic improvement and formulation of mycoherbicides.
Scope of algal
biotechnology, source of fine chemicals, therapeutics, hydrogen
and methane production, culture and cultivation of auto and heterotrophic
Study of the
design and components of fermenter and its working principle.
and screening of microorganisms for production of enzymes and
production of protease/amylase/invertase/antibiotics .
of BOD from sewage/fermentation broth sample
of E. coli for antibiotic/metal resistance gene, selection of
transformed clones and plasmid isolation, restriction digestion,
of fungal DNA
analysis of typical fungi
protein profile during host pathogen interaction
of precipitation reaction based immunodiffusion test
S 31: Environmental Botany (Supportive Course)
and Dynamics of Ecosystems, Components,
and plant structure, Response of plants to pollutions ,Frost and
and Conservation of Biological Diversity,
4. Over exploitation
of selected species,
ecology and Biological control, Sustainable development,
6. Seed Bank,
Gene Bank and Germplasm Reserve
Laws : Public Interest Litigation, Public Nuisance, Environmental
S 41: Computer Application and Bioinformatics (Supportive
on computer: Why computer, Information explosion in life sciences<
need for processing; human being as information processor, as
information generator, Class of problems that can be solved by
a digita computer, problems which may not solved by digital computers.
of a digital computer: Block diagram of digital computer-detail
of input units, output units, central processing unit pointing
devices, fast input devices. Exotic input/output devices. Secondary
storage devices. Types of digital computer, generation of digi9tal
computer. Organization; low level and high-level language: binary
number system Structured computer Organization: Various levels
of digital computer, operating system as resource manager.
concepts and commands Unix as a multi user, multi tasking operating
system Introduction to Linux Introduction to programming in C/MATLAB
word processing, Spreadsheets, computer graphics and presentation
software Algorithm and flow chart Sequential, conditional and
vis-a-vis Natural language Low and high level languages the basic
concepts Binary number system Basic concepts of translation process
(syntax, semantics etc) C as a programming language Alphabets
and language elements Operators and separators strings Flow control,
Relational operators Construction of compound statements Functions
and structured programming- Top down approach, character processing
Network and Internet Introduction and applications
Applications and Prospects, Genome and protein information resources,
sequence analysis, multiple sequence alignment, homology and analogy,
pattern recognition, analysis package.
Courses : Special Papers
O 41: Advanced Cell Biology
of life, nucleus and organelles -: Mitochondria,
Chloroplast, Peroxisome Nucleus : Protein trafficking into these
communications; General principles, G proteins, protein kinases
and protein phophatases; MAPKs; signal transduction in disease
cell cycle: Overview, principles of assembly, cohesion and
segregation, Experimental systems: Microtubule: Structure, formation;
associated proteins; centriole-origin and function; drug effects
on microtubules: Biochemical and genetic approaches, Cell cycle
control in yeast vs mammalian cells, Universality in cell cycle
of the eukaryotic nucleus: Chromosome model, nucleosome,
Chromatin modification and genome expression; genome expression
and silencing; DNA binding proteins and their attachment sites.
Chromosome constitution; forces involved in cell division
and recombination genome duplication, alteration and importance,
mobile genetic elements.
Transcriptomes and proteomes: Eukaryotic Nuclear Genome:
genetic features of eukaryotic nuclear genome;.genomes of prokaryotes
– bacterial and viral genomes functioning of Genomes- elucidation
of transcriptome, proteome; and the metabolome.
Types and molecular basis; genetic basis of complementation;
chromosomal aberration; structural basis of DNA mutagenesis ;
oxidative DNA damage and mutagenesis and in vitro mutagenesis.
DNA repair and diverse functions in the cellular DNA damage
of DNA repair in prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes and higher plants.
Identification and molecular characterization of repair enzymes.
Cancer Characteristics of tumor cells: Transformed cell
lines, Oncogene vs tumor suppressor, immunocytochemistry, strategies
for combating cancer.
Evolution: Evolution of gene structure, Protein Domains,
Ribozyme and RNA world; Micro RNA, Si RNA and importance of RNAi
in differentiation and evolution; evolution of major phyletic
lines; antiquity of introns; transposable elements Evolution and
Horizontal Transfer, molecular clock.
O 41:Advanced Phycology and Algal Biotechnology
development in algal classification and phylogeny
in Geothermal Habitat : Geographic distribution, Distribution
determination by chemistry (lipid biomarker) and molecular analysis
systematics of Cyanobacteria & Prochlorophyta ( The ‘other’
cyanobacteria), Dinophyta and Streptophyta. Molecular approach
to Cyanobacterial Evolution.
Biology of Cyanelles : Wall biosynthesis and structure, molecular
genetics, Protein transport, Phylogenetic analysis.
genetic modifications of Cyanobacteria; Microalgae as platform
for Recombinant proteins, Genetic behavior of Chlamydomonas
Harvesting Complex : Phycobiliproteins constituting core and rod
elements of PBS, Linker polypepties, Chromatic adaptation, Structure
and Regulation of light harvesting genes.
of Inorganic chemical stress on Algae : Adsorption and uptake,
Response of algal communities to inorganic stressors, Mechanism
of tolerance, Algal bioassay of Inorganic stressors.
and Culture Productivity.
algae in Wet Land Ecology: Algal assemblages in wetlands, Factors
affecting Algal production, Conceptual Models of wetland Algae(Dry
state, Open state, Sheltered state, Lake state).
community structure and function: Spatial distribution of biomass,
Seasonal cycle of plankton growth, Community analysis, Process
in plankton succession.
Role of Algae :Limiting nutrients, Algae in Biogeochemistry (
phosphorus, nitrogen, silicon and carbon/oxygen cycles)
in Human Welfare: Production of fine chemicals (Polysaccharides,
bio-active molecules, antioxidants, lipids and PUFA), Micro-algae
in human nutrition, Algae in aquaculture.
and Phycoremediation : Eutrophication and water poisoning, Algae
in wastewater oxidation pond, Removal of heavy metals, Impacts
of micro-algae in quality of drinking water
Techniques and mass cultivation: Biological principles, Types
of reactors for phototrophic algae, Down stream processing of
cell mass production, Heterotrophic production of Marine Algae
production of microalgal cell mass and secondary products : Spirulina,
Dunaliella, Haematococcus, Porphyridium.
Based on theory
approaches to bacterial taxonomy, chemo-taxonomic characteristics
(peptidoglycan, lipids, fatty acids and proteins) and genotypic
characteristics (DNA-base composition, -fingerprinting, -relatedness;
RNA-sequence analysis, DNA-RNA hybridization); bacterial phylogeny.
microbiota of human body; host-parasite relationship in baterial
pathogenecity: non-specific mechanisms of host defense, mechanism
of bacterial virulence, genetics of bacterial virulence; chemotherapy:
antibiotics (origin, classification, chemistry and mode of action);
semisynthetic antibiotics; antibiotic resistance in bacteria,
mechanism of antibiotic resistance.
antibody production, antibody diversity; antigen-antibody reactions;
immunoassay methods and their applications, major histocompatibility
complex (structure and function), complement system and complement
activation; monoclonal antibodies (production and applications).
of viruses, methods for detection and assay, phage typing, major
human viruses: HIV, Hepatitis B and C, their salient properties,
diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Viral vaccines, interferon
and antiviral drugs.
interactions (microbe-microbe interactions, plant-microbe interactions,
animal-microbe interactions), quorum sensing; microbial consortia;
bacterial biofilms- formation and applications; biogeochemical
cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur.
treatment of wastes and pollutants: solid wastes disposal, treatment
of liquid wastes; Biodegradation of environmental pollulants:
petroleum hydrocoarbons and xenobiotics. Bioremediation of heavy
metals; Bioleaching and recovery of metals.
nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase and alternative nitrogenase system,
nif genes; degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin,
production of biofertilizers (mass production of Rhizobium
and Azotobacter); Microbial control of insects.
Use of viruses in agriculture.
produced by microbes: Fermented foods (fermented dairy products,
alcoholic beverages, vinegar, fermented vegetables), microbial
cells as food. Food as substrate for microorganism, food borne
disease; contamination and spoilage of food ( meat and meat products,
fish, fruits and vegetables, milk and milk products), methods
of food preservation (physical and chemical).
O 41: Molecular Mycology & Plant Pathology
sensing and uptake in fungi.
of carbohydrate and nitrogen compound metabolism.
control of vegetative growth, asexual and sexual development
organization in fungi.
chromosomal inheritance in fungi.
and general methods of fungal genetic engineering.
and retrotransposon in fungi.
of protein synthesis in fungi.
shock protein and chaperon.
of cell cycle in yeast; genetic manipulation of brewing yeast.
mycology: General account of cell mediated and humoral immunity.
in modern medicines: Mushroom nutraceutials.
basis of plant-pathogen interaction- physiology and genetics
of plant-pathogen interaction; genetics of pathogenicity; gene
for gene hypothesis and its molecular explanation; resistance
genes and avirulent genes.
biology of disease resistance- Plant chemicals (phenolics) involved
in resistance: Phytoalexins; pathogenesis related (PR) proteins;
systemic acquired resistance (SAR).
specific and non specific toxin and molecular basis of their
roles in pathogenicity.
gall tumerogenesis- nature of tumor; the Ti plasmid and its
use as a transformation vector.
of disease resistant variety by mutation breeding and recombinant
diagnoses of plant pathogens- DNA-DNA hybridization; PCR amplification
and finger printing; protein profiling by gel electrophoresis
(SDS-PAGE); immunological assays.
in plant pathology.
control by biotechnological methods- use of hyper parasite,
hypovirulence plasmids and recombinant DNA technology.
O 41: Palaeobotany and Palynology
1. Brief introduction
to physical geology related to Palaeobotany: types of rock; from
sediments to sedimentary rock- types, rock units; tectonics and
tectonic features, taphonomy.
of stratigraphy, code of stratigraphic nomenclature, Biostratigraphy,
Lithostratigraphy, Chronostratigraphy; code of nomenclature for
of palaeobotany in geological investigations, plate tectonics,
palaeoenvironment and palaeogeography; Co-existence approach for
quantitative reconstruction of palaeoclimate, determination of
of life; Major events in the Precambrian- early life forms, Indian
records, stromatolites and palaeoecology.
algae, fungi, bryophytes- distribution in time, evolutionary and
theories and the plant fossil record; Evolutionary trends of early
land plants: palaeobotanical, biochemical and molecular evidences.
changes during Permian, Permo-Carboniferous floral provinces.
Early Paleozoic and Lower Carboniferous flora of India. Origin
and relationships of cycads, bennettites, ginkgos and glossopterids.
of Glossopteris flora in time and space, Glossopteris plants.
Seedling of Glossopteris.
9. The modern
concepts of Angiosperm phylogeny and evolution in the light of
recent palaeobotanical, palynological discoveries in conjunctions
with data of other modern science: cladistics, molecular biology,
of mangrove vegetation with special reference to palaeocoastline
reconstruction; evolution of plants using the C4 and
CAM photosynthetic pathway: the first grasses.
concept of Mass extinction: evidence in the geological record:
plants versus animals; floral changes across the Cretaceous –
interactions: Plant animal interaction and their co evolution.
of peat, lignite and coal. Artificial classification of sporae-dispersae,
role of palaeopalynology and microfossils in oil exploration,
identification of isobotanical line, source rocks and palaeoshoreline;
14. Coal petrology-
Depositional facies, Diagenesis, Lithification, Microlithotypes,
reflectance, fluorescence study (brief), Application of coal petrology
geological occurrence, structure and palaeoecology of Acritarchs,
Dinoflagellates, Hystrichosphaerids, Radiolaria, Microforaminifera,
Ostracods, Silicoflagellates, Diatoms, Botryococcus, Coccolithophores.
of Quaternary sediments in understanding global warming, climate
changes, eustatic sea level change, coastal evolution with special
reference to Bengal Basin.
DNA and biomolecular record: Extraction, characterization and
potential in evolution and climate research; fossil evidence of
physiological and developmental mechanism-polar auxin flow.
study of plant economy from Palaeolithic to Historic age; vegetation
dynamics and palaeoclimatic reconstruction through phytolith analysis.
19. Mega –
Mio floristic divisions of Indian Gondwana- Dicroidium
and Ptilophyllum flora, organography of Glossopteris
Intertrappean flora and palaeoecological consideration.
flora- palaeobotany and palynology with special reference to Kashmir.
aspects of Neopalynology and their applications: Melittopalynology,
Aeropalynology, Forensic palynology, Copropalynology, Entomopalynology;
Natural traps of pollen grains and their importance.
O 41: Phytochemistry And Pharmacognosy
of secondary metabolites – detailed account of acetate malonate,
and shikimic acid pathway.
and degradation of secondary metabolites – physiological and developmental
aspects - compartmentation of secondary metabolism.
biosynthesis and sources of drugs:
and phenolic glycosides : structural types, biosynthesis, importance
(simple phenolic compounds, tannins, anthraquinones, coumarins
and furanocoumarins, flavones and related flavonoid glycosides,
anthocyanins, stilbenes, lignins and lignans).
sterols, saponins, withanolides, ecdysones, cucurbitacins: Biosynthesis,
isoprenoids – iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenoids, triterpenoids,
– different groups, biosynthesis, bioactivity.
proteins and amino acids as drugs
toxins and toxoids, antitoxins, immune globulins, antiserums
– chemical nature, mode of action.
action of plant drugs – tumour inhibitors, hypoglycaemic, antihepatotoxic,
antiprotozoal, antiviral, immunomodulators, PAF antagonists,
antioxidants, phytoestrogens and others.
methods of phytochemical analysis – extraction, isolation (different
chromatographic techniques, principles), characterisation, immunoassay,
of genetics and plant breeding in pharmacognosy
metabolomics: a brief idea
culture and biotechnology for production of secondary metabolites
- microbiological conversion – metabolic engineering
Based on theory
O 41: Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
concept of plant in vitro technology: History of in vitro
plant biology Organization of a tissue culture laboratory, Equipment
and supplies, Basic techniques, Medium components, Medium preparation,
Organogenesis process, Developmental sequences, Mechanism of action
of plant hormones, multiple hormonal control on organogenesis,
Cell cycle control of organogenesis, Mechanisms of morphogenesis,
Genetic control of morphogenesis, Genetic and physiological regulation
of plant organ size and shape.
Major processes in Embryonic development; Formation of the Apical-Basal
Axis, Establishing the Radial Axis, Mechanisms that establish
cell fate in the embryo, Role of phytohormone in embryogenesis;
Somatic Embryogenesis-Structural and developmental ontogeny, Physiological
and Biochemical aspect of somatic embryogenesis, Molecular markers
and genes for somatic embryogenesis.Gene expression and signal
transduction.Regulation; Application; synthetic seeds.
and Triploid culture; Androgenesis, Gynogenesis and Endosperm
culture; Techniques and its applications in genetics and crop
culture and somatic hybridization: : Isolation, Purification
and Culture of Protoplasts; Protoplast fusion and Somatic Hybridization,
Principle and scope; Nuclear and Cytoplasmic hybrids; Selection
of hybrids; Regeneration; Possibilities; Applications; Limitations.
methods and stages of clonal propagation; Production of virus-free
plants, virus free assessment methods, genetic assessment -by
RAPD and ISSR markers, Field evaluation, certification for quality
plants, Packaging technology & Transport methods.
cell genetics; Somaclonal variation; Genotypic and Phenotypic
variations in cell cultures and in regenerated plants, Origin;
Types; chromosomal and genetic basis of somaclonal variation;
Applications in crop improvement.
preservation: Concept of Biodiversity and role of In situ
and ex situ conservations of germplasms; Cryopreservation;
Principle, Techniques and Applications.
concept, types and use in plant tissue culture
manipulations in plants; Strategies and Methods of genetic
manipulations in plants ; Agrobacterium-mediated gene
transfer; Genetic elements and engineering of Ti and Ri plasmids;;
Direct gene transfer – electroporation, particle bombardment and
other alternative methods; Role of markers in plant transformation;
Application of plant transformation for productivity and performance;
Molecular farming, benefits and risks; Transgene stability and
gene silencing; Strategies to avoid gene silencing and improve
gene expression in transgenic plants.
of secondary metabolites by cell and organ cultures: Secondary
product formation and storage in plants, Manipulation of biosynthetic
capacity of secondary metabolites in cell cultures; factors determining
the accumulation of secondary metabolites by plant cells and organ
cultures; strategies for improvement of metabolite production;
Screening and selection of variant cell lines with increased secondary
product level. Biotransformation using plant cell cultures;Transformed
cell and root cultures for production of secondary metabolites
; Metabolic engineering for production of secondary metabolites.
Based on Theory
O 41: Plant Genetics And Genomics
analysis and an overview of Genomics:
genetic analysis; Epistasis analysis, genetic analysis of pathways;
suppressor/enhancer screens;.forward and reverse genetics; Evolution
of the concept of the Gene, genetic definition of the gene; Complex
gene-protein relationships. Genomics an overview; correlated genetic,
cytological, physical maps of chromosomes in plants; map position
based cloning of genes; RNA and protein assays of genome function;
evolution of genome in cereal grasses.
of gene expression:
modification and genome expression. Various protein motifs involved
in DNA protein interactions during eukaryotic transcription; chromatin
remodeling, different modes of mRNA , tRNA splicing; general discussion
on various snRNPs; capping ,polyadenylation and other processing
events in eukaryotes, RNA editing; discussion on ribozyme; RNA
interference: mechanism and enzymology regulation of gene expression
by miRNP pathway.; plant virus interactions and silencing of
of hybrid cultivars and molecular breeding
of combining ability, prediction of double cross hybrid performance;
production of hybrids through the use of cytoplasmic genetic male
sterility systems, Classes of molecular markers, detecting DNA
polymorphisms, genetics of mapping molecular loci, specialized
mapping techniques. QTL, mapping QTL with molecular markers, application
of markers to selection.
tagging of plant genes:
and the Ac/Ds transposable elements of corn; Cloning maize Ac/Ds
elements; molecular features of the maize Ac/Ds system; Transposon
tagging; Cloning the Cf-9 gene of tomato by transposon tagging
flower development in plants: Mendelian Genetics to Molecular Sequence
The steps of
flower development- genes are implicated; Mendelian genes define
the committment to flowering; Mendelian genes define floral organ
identity; Cloning commitment to flowering and flower organ genes;
MADS-box genes; Analyzing gene expression with in situ hybridization;
Molecular expression of floral commitment genes; Molecular expression
of floral organ genes..
engineering: technological advances in gene discovery that
have helped metabolic engineering, eg, in lipid metabolism, carotenoid
pathway, phenylpropanoid pathway; Manipulating structural genes
for pathway enzymes to affect change in metabolism; Identification
and study of transcriptional factors controlling pathways of metabolism.
in plant metabolism; Genetic characterization of molecular mechanism
driving plant natural product biosynthesis; Combinatorial Biochemistry
tools; Sequencing technology, sequencing strategies, sequence databases
(ESTs, BAC ends, genomic etc.), annotation of sequence data, Using
TAIR (BAC contigs in areas of interest, obtaining their sequences),
the annotation process, BLAST searches, DNA microarrays for global
gene expression studies, Computer tools: BLAST searches, multiple
alignments, phylogenetic trees.
of proteomics in post genomics era; studying the proteome; interactive
session: virtual proteomeics; analyzing a protein; application
Informatics. Plant Proteomics and Gene Expression Profiling.
and evolutionary genetics
inheritance: traits controlled by many loci; location and significance
of polygenic inheritance; QTL mapping with molecular markers; population
statistics; heritability;partitioning of the variance; measurement
of heritability; quantitative inheritance in plants.Quantifying
heritability; testing for fit to Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium; extension
of H-W equilibrium – multiple alleles;multiple loci;Non random mating-inbreeding
and population analysis;
forces: processes that change allelic frequencies; models for
population genetics;The ribonucleic acid and ribonucleic protein
worlds. The DNA world; the evolution of major phyletic lines;Evolution
by Genome Duplication; Evolution by Gene Duplication: Evolution
of Protein Domains; Evolution and introns; Evolution and Horizontal
Transfer : Evolution and transposable elements.molecular clock.
Based on theory
O 41: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
of photosynthetic apparatus and light absorbing antenna system.
Genes and polypeptide components of photosynthetic complexes.
Rubisco and Rubisco genes.
2. ATP generation
mechanisms in chloroplast and mitochondria.
assimilation in plants. Structure function and regulation of nitrate
4. Nif gene,
nod gene – structure, function and regulation.
and molecular biology of stress – abiotic stress, biotic stress,
heavy metals, reactive oxygen species and their protection mechanism.
and programmed cell death (PCD) – Senescence and its regulations,
hormonal and environmental control of senescence. Molecular Biology
of PCD; fruit ripening.
carriers and Channels – Structure and function, energetics of
active transport, isophore and ionophore; vacuoles – structure
and metabolism of sulphur.
induction and development – hormonal control; molecular genetics
of floral development and floral organ differentiation.
Antigen structure and function of different classes of immunoglobulins;
primary and secondary immune response, humoral and cell mediated
immunity, mechanism of the immune response. Effector mechanisms,
applications of immunological techniques.
11. Post translational
modification of protein, protein targeting, protein transport,
chaperon and protein folding.
Molecules, signal perception and transduction in plants.
purification, characterization, methods for the determination
of amino acids sequences in proteins.
of carotenoids, amino acids, biological significance of carotenoids.
structure, function and genetic engineering.
applied to functional genomics.
engineering: An overview.
genes: Structure, tagging, recombinant DNA technology, Vectors,
transposon and mobile elements.
- biosynthesis, transport, mechanism of action, bioassay.
characterization of transgenic events; Food and Biosafety, Risk
assessment, IPR and transboundary movement of biotech seeds and
materials, Economic impact of transgenic crops.
O 41: Taxonomy And Biosystematics
of taxonomy in India.
Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
plasticity: definition, causes, methods of study, Role of vegetative
morphology, phytochemistry, serology, SEM, TEM, and molecular
of origin and diversity of cultivated plants; Indian centers of
wild plant genetic resources; Role of IBPGR and NBPGR.
of India: classifications; description of Himalayan, peninsular
and desert vegetation.
7. Flora of
India: composition, bio-geographic evolution, endemism, disjunction.
concept, kinds/levels, importance, methods of study, concern,
protection from depletion.
principles, causes of threats and categories of threatened plants
(IUCN), methods of assessment, strategies of conservation-in
situ and ex situ; concept and types of protected areas;
role of botanic gardens and gene banks.
scope; branches, structure, types and evolution of pollen grains;
11. GIS and
applications in Botany